Thursday, 13 June 2013

British vs American English

British spelling                 American spelling
1. Colour                             1. Color
2. Labour                            2. Labor
3. Counsellor                      3. Counselor
4. Traveller                         4. Traveler
5. Centre                              5. Center
6. Theatre                            6. Theater
7. Organise                          7. Organize
8.realise                               8. Realize
9. Offence                            9. Offense
10. Defence                         10. Defense

Saturday, 20 October 2012

Important spellings

1. maintain ( verb )         maintenance ( noun )
2. transfer   (present)      transferred    ( past )
3. pronounce ( verb )      pronunciation (noun)
4. conclude (verb)           conclusion (noun)
5. miscelleneous              miscellaneous (right)
6. occassion                     occasion (right)
7. surviellance                 surveillance (right) 
8. carot                            carrot (right)
9. arear                            arrears
10. rabit                           rabbit (right)
11. habbit                         habit ( right)
12. countinous                  continuous (right)
13. intresting                    interesting (right)
14. exel                            excel (right)
15. clearity                       clarity ( right)
16. Beautifull (wrong)      beautiful (right)
17. Quiter (wrong )           quitter ( right)


Articles have been derived from Determiners and the Determiners have been derived from Adjectives. Adjective is one of the parts of speech.
1. Definite Article       2. Indefinite Article
    The                              a/an
Points to Remember
I. Article is used before noun
II. Article is NOT used before adjective alone.
III. Article is used before adjective + noun

Let's Do
1. I have ____ book. ( noun)
    I have a book. ( article used before noun)
2. He is ____ honest. ( adjective )
    He is honest. (no article used before adjective )
3. She is ____ honest girl. ( adj + noun )
    She is an honest girl. ( article used before adj+noun )

Use of 'an'
I. If there appears any vowel's sound followed by a black.
1. I have ___ umbrella.
    I have an umbrella.
2. He is ____ S.H.O.
    He is an S.H.O.

Thursday, 11 October 2012

Spelling Rule

1. Adding ' full ' as a suffix with some word
    Beauty + full = Beautiful
Note: We delete one 'l' from the 'full'
some more examples are given below:
    Peace + full = Peaceful
    hand   + full = handful

Spelling Rule 2.
When we write any word containing ' ei ' or  ' ie ' so sometimes we get confused. To avoid this confusion remember the simple rule: if the word also contains ' c ' then we make it an alphabetic order.
e.g.  r e c e i v e, deceive, perceive, conceive  ' ei ' is preceded by ' c '.
in other words
e.g. chief , believe, fierce , exception seize 

Spelling Rule 3. 
When we have to use 'es' in a verb containing 'y' preceded by a consonant then we convert the 'y' into 'i' and add 'es' with this.
e.g. Fly    +  es  =  flies
      Fry    +  es  =  fries
      Imply +  es  =  implies

6. If there appear 'l' at the end of a verb, we double the 'l' while using 'ed' with it to make it past or past participle
1. label = label + l + ed = labelled
2. cancel = cancel + l + ed = cancelled

spelling rule
to add  'ing' with the verb
CVC rule: C: Consonant, V: Vowel
If there appeares any vowel between two consonant in some verb and we want to add 'ing' to this verb then the last consonant of the verb would be doubled.
r u n  : r-consonant, u-vowel, n-consonant
run + ing = run + n+ ing = running ( we have added one more last consonant 'n' )
put + ing = putting
sit + ing = sitting

Friday, 9 March 2012


Simple/assertive/affirmative sentences
I am .........
1. I am brave.      I am a brave boy.
2. I am clever.     I am a clever girl.
3. I am cool.        I am a cool man.
4. I am honest.    I am an honest lady.
5. I am active.      I am an active person.

I am a ..........
1. I am a teacher.
2. I am a doctor.
3. I am a lawyer.
4. I am a painter.
5. I am a driver.

I am an ........
1. I am an engineer.
2. I am an inspector.
3. I am an invigilator.
4. I am an interviewer.
5. I am an investigator.

Negative sentences
I am not ..........
6. I am not a cheat.
7. I am not a thief
8. I am not a beggar.
9. I am not lazy.
10.I am not bad.

Interrogative sentences
Am I ........
1. Am I mad?
3. Am I blind?
2. Am I a liar?
4. Am I a servant?
5. Am I a sweeper?

Interro-negative sentences
1. Am I not honest ?
2. Am I not fit ?
3. Am I not ill?
4. Am I not fat?
5. Am I not a trader?

Thursday, 26 January 2012


                  1. PREFIX                                                                                          2. SUFFIX
  1. de + moralize = demoralize, defame, decode, devalue, deform, 
  2. im + pure = impure, impossible, immobile , imperfect, impolite, improper
  3. in + complete = incomplete, indecent, indiscipline, invisible, ineffective
  4. ir + respective = irrespective, irregular, irrational, irresponsible, irreligious, irrelevant, 
  5. il + legal = illegal , illogical, illegible, illegitimate, illiterate

Wednesday, 25 January 2012



TYPES OF VERB : 1. Finite   2. Non-Finite
Finite Verb : A verb that is regulated ( influenced ) by the subject of the sentence.
e.g. I  play  cricket.
   He  plays cricket.
Here the verb ' play ' has been changed with the change of the subject.
Non-Finite verb: A verb that is not regulated ( influenced ) by the subject of the sentence.
e.g. I  like to play.
   He  likes to play.
Here the verb ' to play ' has not been changed with the change of the subject of the sentence.


  1. A person who represents a state in a foreign country = ambassador राजदूत
  2. A person who does not believe in the existence of God = atheist नास्तिक
  3. The yearly return of an event = anniversary सालगिरह
  4. An assembly of listeners = audience श्रोतागण 
  5. The life history of a person written by himself = autobiography आत्मकथा
  6. The most powerful power = almighty सर्वशक्तिमान
  7. A person who does something for his pleasure not for the sake of money = amateur शौकिया
  8. A piece of writing whose writer in not known = anonymous गुमनाम
  9. A person who cannot pay off debts = bankrupt / insolvent दिवालिया
  10. Study of plants = botany वनस्पति विज्ञान
  11. The life history of a person written by another = biography जीवनी
  12. One who breaks out in a house = burglar सेंधमार
  13. A plot of land that does not grow anything = barren बंजर
  14. One who exists at the same time as another = contemporary समकालीन
  15. Having constituent elements from all over the world = cosmopolitan सर्वदेशीय

Saturday, 21 January 2012

Pedagogy of Language Development

Challenges of teaching language in a diverse classroom; language difficulties, errors and disorders
Diverse classroom: A class room in which a teacher finds the students of different languages, different religions/cast/creed/culture and  different gender.

Language difficulties: Some students may have different pronunciation in English because of their mother-tongue influence.

Errors : If the students have just listened a word from other and they are not aware of the spelling of the word  , so there may be found some variation in their pronunciation of the word.
e.g. the word convince /kuhn-vins /  is  wrongly pronounced as / kuhn-vey-uhns / conveyance. While both the words have different meaning.

Disorder : The students may use the words  in disorder to make a sentence. e.g. 'What you have done? ' is in disorder. The sentence should be What have you done?

Well these kinds of issues are minute but of great importance in a diverse classroom. 

Pedagogy of Language Development

Critical Perspective on the role of grammar in learning a language for communicating ideas verbally and in written form
1. It helps the students to learn English through their mother-tongue.
2. Rules of grammar teach how to write correct English.
3. It promotes the skills of reading and comprehension.
4. It develops the art and skill of translation.
5. Grammar disciplines the mind. From this angle rote memorization is      
6. It is helpful to differentiate between the structure of foreign and native languages by way of comparison and contrast.

Function of a language and how children use it as a tool

Function of a language and how children use it as a tool
1.  Social function
2.      Develops four skills LSRW( listening, speaking, reading, writing)
3.  Cultural function
4.      Verbal interaction
5.      The expressive function
6.  Communicative approach : helps in understanding phonemes ( pronunciation), morphemes ( spellings ) and     grammar
7.  Aesthetic aspect: in the form of literature and other written records for the posterity ( future generation).
How children use it as a tool
Ø  Children use a form of language to communicate their thoughts, needs , desire and express their feelings.
Ø   They maintain their relation with the society and share their culture by interacting with the help of their language.
Ø   They apply the words and sentences listened at places to communicate with others. They come across with their aesthetic values in the form of written records in terms of stories or poems.

Principles of Language Teaching

·        Principles of Language Teaching
(Principles Derived from the Linguistic Science.)
The modern approach to all language learning and teaching is the scientific one and is based on sound linguistic principles. The principles discussed below in no way claim finality : they are subject to change in the light of new facts exposed by linguists and language users. These principles are general principles and are applicable to English language.
1. Principle of Sound Priority: The sounds of English should receive priority. Sounds should be given their due place in the scheme of teaching. Sounds should not be presented in isolation. They should appear in proper expressions and sentences spoken with the intonation and rhythm which would be used by a native speaker.
2.Principle of Presenting Language in Basic Sentence Patterns: Present, and have the students memorise, basic sentence patterns used in day to day conversation. From small utterances the students can easily pass on to longer sentences. In case of learning mother-tongue, the student’s memory span can retain much longer sentences than those of a foreign language. The facility thus gained in a foreign language enables the learners expand the grasp of the language material in respect of sounds and vocabulary items.
3. Principle of Language Patterns as Habits. Real language ability is at the habit level. It does not just mean knowing about the language. Make language patterns as habit through intensive pattern practice in variety of situations. The students must be taught to use language patterns and sentence constructions with appropriate vocabulary at normal speed for communication. In fact the habitual use of the most frequently used patterns and items of language, should take precedence over the mere accumulation of words.
4. Principle of  Imitation. Imitation is an important principle of language learning. No leaner by himself ever invented language. Good speech is the result of imitating good models. The model should be intelligible. Imitation followed by intensive practice helps in the mastery of the language system.
5. Principle of Controlled Vocabulary. Vocabulary should be kept under control. Vocabulary should be taught and practised only in the context of real situations. This way, meaning will be clarified and reinforced.
6. Principle of Graded Patterns: “To teach a language is to impart a new system of complex habits, and habits are acquired slowly.” (R.Lado) So, language patterns should be taught gradually, in cumulative graded steps. This means, the teacher should go on adding each new element or pattern to previous ones. New patterns of language should be introduced and practised with vocabulary that students already know.
7. Principle of  Selection and Gradation: Selection of the language material to be taught is the first requisite of good teaching. Selection should be done in respect of grammatical items and vocabulary and structures.
Selection of language items should involve
frequency     (how often a certain item or word is used)
range           (in what different contexts a word or an item can be used)
coverage      (how many different meanings a word or an item can convey)
availability   (how far an item is convenient to teach)
learn-ability  (how far an item is easy to learn)
teach-ability  (how far and item is easy to teach - in the social context)
Gradation of the language material means placing the language items in an order. Grading involves grouping and sequence. Grouping concerns (i) the system of language, and (ii) its structures. Grouping the system of language means what sounds, words, phrases and meanings are to be taught.
Thus we have:
(i) Phonetic grouping, i.e. grouping according to sounds. For example, words having the same sound are placed in the one group as, cat, bat, mat, pat, fat, sat; it, bit, fit, hit, kit, it, etc.
(ii) Lexical grouping, i.e., grouping according to lexical situations. Example:school, teacher, headmaster, peon, class-room, library. All these words are grouped around “school.”
(iii) Grammatical grouping, i.e., grouping according to similar patterns as, my book/ his book, (pattern grouping): in the room, in the corner/ in the class/in the garden, etc. (phrase grouping)
(iv) Semantic grouping, i.e., grouping according to meaning. Example: school, college, university; bicycle, rickshaw, car, tonga, train, aeroplane, etc,.
(v) Structure grouping, i.e., grouping in the structures means how the selected items fit one into the other-the sounds into the words, the words into phrases, the phrases into the clauses and sentences, and the sentences into the context.
Sequence means what comes after what. Sequence should be there in the arrangement of sounds (phonetic sequence), phrases (grammatical sequence) words (lexical sequence) and in meaning (semantic sequence). Sequence of structures implies direction, expansion, variation and length of the structures.
8. Principle of  Oral Way. Experts believe that the oral way is the surest way to language learning. Prof. Kittson rightly observes,. “Learning to speak a language is always the shortest road to learning to read and write it.” Prof Palmer also writes,. “We should refrain from reading and writing any given material until we have learnt to use its spoken  form.”
9. Principle of Priorities of Language Skills: Listening (with understanding), speaking, reading and writing are the four fundamental skills. Listening and speaking are primary skills, while reading and writing are secondary skills. Reading and writing are reinforcement skills. They reinforce what has been learnt through understanding and speaking. In fact, understanding and speaking speed up the reading process. Writing should be introduced after reading.
10. Principle of Multiple Line of Approach: “The term multiple line implies that one is to proceed simultaneously from many different points towards the one and the same end. We should reject nothing except the useless material and should selected judiciously and without prejudice all that is likely to help in our work”. In teaching a language, it implies attacking the problem from all fronts. Say, for example, there is a lesson on ‘Holidays’ in the text book. The teacher can have a number of language activities connected with the topic such as oral drill, reading, sentence writing,composition, grammar, translation, language exercises etc.
11. Principle of using language . Language Habit through Language Using: A language is best learnt through use in different contexts and situations. Prof. Eugene A. Nida rightly observes, “Language learning means plunging headlong into a series of completely different experiences. It means exposing oneself to situations where the use of language is required.” Another expert expresses a similar opinion by saying: “Learning a language means forming new habits through intensive practice in tearing and speaking. The emphasis should always be on language in actual use”.
12. Principle of Spiral Approach. The “spiral” approach to language learning should be followed. Previously taught vocabulary and structures should be reintroduced in subsequent units whenever logical or possible. This is “spiral approach.
13. Principle of Use Mother-tongue Sparingly. The mother-tongue should be sparingly and judiciously used during teaching English. Of course, at the early stage, some explanations will have to be given in pupil’s mother tongue. It is important that students do not use their mother-tongue in the classroom.

It will not be out of place to list down certain principles which have been derived from the science of psychology.
Principle 1. Motivation. Motivation is an important factor in language learning, particularly in learning a second language. It creates interest as well as the need to learn the language in hand. If the need for the language we use is felt, it is learnt easily. Pupils’ interest can be aroused in a number of ways, and language learning can be made increasingly interesting and attractive. It can be done with the help of pictures, charts, models, flash cards, black board sketches and similar other visual devices. The use of tape-recorder can be most effective in the teaching of pronunciation. The aim is to have the students maximally exposed to the target language in variety of contexts and situations, not in isolation. The teacher should prompt connections, feed back and correct errors, if any. The rule is teach, test, reteach, retest. The teacher should make continual and significant use of language material in class-room situations. Palmer suggests the following six factors which lead to motivate and create interest among children:
(i)  The limitation of bewilderment, that is, minimum of confusion;
(ii)  The sense of progress achieved;
(iii) Competitions;
(iv) Game-like exercises;
(v)  The right relation between teacher and student; and
(vi) Variety.
Principle 2. Immediate Correction. Do make corrections. Corrections make all the difference. They help in improving pupils’ responses. But remember, when corrections are made, they should be made immediately. Moreover, the corrections should be made in such a way as will bring about learning and not frustration or discouragement.
Principle 3. Reinforcement. Immediate reinforcement is an important principle. It has been experimentally proved that reinforcement of correct responses helps in better learning. The student should be told his response is correct immediately after it is given by him.
Principle 4. Frequent Review. An important psychological principle is the principle of frequent review. Frequent review and re-entry of the same material is necessary for retention. During the process of reviewing, variations in material should be essentially be introduced and practised.
Principle 5. Correct Responses. It is an important psychological principle that classroom activities should strengthen the language skills. The techniques used by the teacher of English should encourage the maximum rate of correct responses. This will give children the feeling of success, achievement and assured progress.
Principle 6. Practice in Everyday Situations. A language is best learnt when its need is felt in everyday situations. So, English should be practised in every day situations with which children can easily identify.
In short, the children, their environment and their experiences, should be the starting point. Let them recall (and, they should be helped, if they fail) something familiar which is related to or contrasts with a new language item to be learnt.

difference between Learning and Acquisition

Acquisition of a language : Children acquire language through a subconscious process during which they are unaware of grammatical rules. This is similar to the way they acquire their first language. They get a feel for what is and what isn’t correct. In order to acquire language, the learner needs a source of natural communication. The emphasis is on the text of the communication and not on the form. Young students who are in the process of acquiring English get plenty of “on the job” practice. They readily acquire the language to communicate with classmates.
Learning of a language : language learning on the other hand, is not communicative. It is the result of direct instruction in the rules of language. And it certainly is not an age-appropriate activity for your young learners. In language learning, students have conscious knowledge of the new language and can talk about that knowledge. They can fill in the blanks on a grammar page. Research has shown, however, that knowing grammar rules does not necessarily result in good speaking or writing. A student who has memorized the rules of the language may be able to succeed on a standardized test of English language but may not be able to speak or write correctly.

Saturday, 7 January 2012


Directions : Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow (Q. No. 121 to 129) by selecting the most appropriate option.
1  If you are living in a house with a child on the cusp of becoming a teenager, congratulations. I’m not being sarcastic; you are about to embark on an amazing voyage. It may be a bumpy ride, but on the journey your child will grow, change and blossom into the adult she will one day become. If you are living with an older teenager, I won’t try to sugar coat it : you will meet challenges. The raging hormones; the pressures of exams; the angst of relationships with friends and eventually lovers — modern teenagers are under so much pressure, it’s no wonder they get moody !
 2 Living with teens can be difficult because your child is in the process of great change. Gone is the baby who adored you without question; only shadows remain of the child who hung on your every word of wisdom. Your teenager is becoming a young adult, trying to find his way in the world. He is now programmed to reject your values and kick against your authority. Some days, when arguments are raging, music is blaring, dishes pile up in the sink and your daughter misses her curfew again, you may feel that you just can’t bear it any longer.
 3 But if you take a step backwards, breathing deeply for a moment, you will be able to see that most of the problems and irritations we have parenting teens are small ones. It’s only because we are so close to them that they look so big. It’s all about perspective. Your baby is metamorphosing into the adult he or she will be, and it’s hard to watch. You want to save them from making your mistakes, and make their lives easier. News
flash : you can’t. What you can—and must—do is always be there to listen. There will be times when you are the last person she wants to talk to, but you must make sure the opportunity is always there. Be available.
Source : Raising Teenagers Lynn Huggins-Cooper (adapted)
121. According to the author, living with a teenager is like an ‘amazing voyage’ because
(1) during this voyage the parent will see the teenager blossoming into an adult
(2) the voyage will be very bumpy and dangerous
(3) both the teenager and the parent will get to see many amazing sights
(4) the vogage will take them to different wonderful places on the earth
122. ‘I won’t try to sugar coat it’ — By this what the author wants to convey is that
(1) she does not want to hide the fact that parenting a teenager is full of challenges
(2) parenting is very challenging and parents must be prepared for it in a gentle manner
(3) parenting teenagers is like taking an unpleasant cure for an ailment
(4) she does not want to flatter the parents into believing that they are capable of managing teenagers
123. Modern teenagers easily become annoyed or unhappy for no reason because of
(1) the hormonal imbalance that is characteristic of this period of development
(2) the failed relationships with friends and lovers
(3) failing in examinations
(4) the enormous stress they experience at this age
124. ‘Only shadows remain of the child ...’. The word ‘shadows’ here refers to
(1) faint traces of the adoring child
(2) old memories of the teenager
(3) old memories of the parents
(4) the darker aspect of the growing teenager
125. ‘Kick against your authority’ is a manifestation of a teenager’s
(1) innate tendency to become physically violent
(2) natural rebellious tendency
(3) excessive sentimentality
(4) need for identification with family values
126. ‘He is now programmed to reject your values’implies that the teenager
(1) behaves in such a way because of biological factors
(2) derives much pleasure in going against the family
(3) is capable of programming his behaviour carefully
(4) rejects parents’ values out of sheer spite
127. The author says that parents cannot prevent their teenage children from making mistakes.What is his advice to the parents ?
(1) Be available for consultations and listen to the teenagers
(2) Don’t try to save the teenagers or make their lives easier
(3) Be the last person to approach the teenagers with advice
(4) Do not watch the children growing up at this stage because it can be painful
128. Pick out a word from the first paragraph of the above passage that means ‘strong feelings of anxiety and unhappiness.’
(1) angst
(2) raging
(3) sarcastic
(4) cusp
129. Living with teens can be difficult because your child is in the process of great change. The underlined part of this sentence is a/an
(1) adverb clause
(2) adjective clause
(3) prepositional phrase
(4) noun clause
Directions : Read the poem given below and answer the questions (Q. No. 130–135) that follow by choosing the most appropriate option.
The Hand Holders:
A Tribute To Caregivers
There is no job more important than yours,
no job anywhere else in the land.
You are the keepers of the future;
you hold the smallest of hands.
Into your care you are trusted
to nurture and care for the young,
and for all of your everyday heroics,
your talents and skills go unsung.
You wipe tears from the eyes of the injured.
You rock babies brand new in your arms.
You encourage the shy and unsure child.
You make sure they are safe from all harm.
You foster the bonds of friendships,
letting no child go away mad.
You respect and you honour their emotions.
You give hugs to each child when they’re sad.
You have more impact than does a professor,
a child’s mind is moulded by four;
so whatever you lay on the table
is whatever the child will explore.
Give each child the tools for adventure,
let them be artists and writers and more;
let them fly on the wind and dance on the stars
and build castles of sand on the shore.
It is true that you don’t make much money
and you don’t get a whole lot of praise,
but when one small child says ‘‘I love you’’,
you’re reminded of how this job pays.
Author unknown
130. The expression ‘the smallest of hands’ refers to
(1) babies
(2) caregivers with small hands
(3) parents with small hands
(4) people with small hands
131. Though caregivers look after the young they are
(1) never tired of their work
(2) not properly recognised
(3) not loved by the children under their care
(4) paid very well in return
132. A caregiver has more influence on a child than a professor because
(1) the child generally prefers a caregiver to a professor
(2) the professor is not capable of providing love to a child
(3) the child spends the formative years with the caregiver
(4) the caregiver can teach better than a professor
133. What is the most valuable gift that a caregiver gets ?
(1) Acknowledgement of the society
(2) Praise from the parents
(3) Money for her services
(4) Love from children
134. ‘You give hugs to each child when they’re sad.’ This act can be described as one of
(1) empathy
(2) encouragement
(3) recrimination
(4) reassurance
135. ‘Letting no child go away mad’ — the meaning of this line is
(1) no child is allowed to be angry for long
(2) no child is permitted to go away from school without permission
(3) no child is allowed to become mad
(4) no caregiver is permitted to be mad with a child
Directions : Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.
136. Which among the following is a feature of a child-centred language classroom ?
(1) Teacher gives instructions and expects children to obey and be disciplined
(2) Children interact in the target language through tasks that require multiple intelligences
(3) Children work individually to prepare projects
(4) Teacher plans assessment every day
137. Fluency in English can be developed through
(1) creating opportunities to use the target language for communication
(2) the teacher talking for most of the time
(3) the teacher being alert to spot the errors and correct them
(4) allowing students who are not confident to have the freedom to be quiet
138. An effective lesson for teaching a language begins with
(1) listing the learning objectives of the lesson
(2) presenting the content of the lesson
(3) recapitulation and motivation through fun activity
(4) writing on the blackboard
139. Some noise in the language class indicates
(1) indiscipline of learners
(2) teacher’s lack of control over the class
(3) incompetence of the teacher
(4) constructive activities with learners engaged in language learning
140. Enquiry-based learning
(1) does not place students in thought provoking situations
(2) encourages quiet learners
(3) does not nurture creative thinking in students
(4) allows learners to raise questions
141. Effective learning takes place when students are
(1) passive
(2) interactive
(3) quiet
(4) good at preparing for examinations
142. In large language classes, group work can be accomplished by
(1) asking 4–5 students to sit together on a narrow bench despite lack of space
(2) asking students to turn around for group work
(3) asking all students to stand in a circle
(4) asking half the class to go out to the playground
143. A test to assess the potential of students for specific abilities and skills such as music, spatial ability or logical ability is called a/an
(1) Proficiency Test
(2) Aptitude Test
(3) Attitude Test
(4) Achievement Test
144. A teacher can develop listening skills in English by
(1) speaking to them continuously both within the classroom and outside
(2) focusing only on listening skills without associating it with other language skills
(3) making the learners listen to everything they hear passively
(4) creating opportunities for them to listen to a variety of sources and people and engage in listening activities
145. Which of the following is best suited for improving the speaking skills of learners ?
(1) Recitation of poetry
(2) Reading a prose and drama aloud
(3) Oral language drill
(4) Debates and group discussions followed by role play
146. Which of the following will be most effective to remove conventional beliefs about gender roles ?
(1) Showing a picture in which the mother is seen cooking and the father is seen reading a newspaper
(2) Teaching all the learners to sweep, wash and sew in the craft class without any gender discrimination
(3) Encouraging girls to develop interest in household chores from a young age
(4) Telling the girls that talking freely is not a trait of good girls
147. The Right of Children to Free and
Compulsory Education Act, 2009 has ‘overall development’ as an aim. It means
(1) training the children for the development of the country
(2) nurturing both the scholastic and coscholastic areas
(3) coaching all the children for academic excellence
(4) training the children for different careers
148. A play can be best taught by
(1) making the students read it silently a number of times to understand the story
(2) encouraging the students to stage the play after working in groups to understand the plot, characters etc.
(3) asking a number of questions to test the comprehension of the students
(4) conducting a test with specific questions on the story and grammar items
149. A class is reading a story based in a village. The teacher asks some students to mark the villages in an outline map of their locality. Some other students are asked to collect information about the different crops grown in these villages. Yet another group works on the nutritional value of the grains, fruits and vegetables grown in the locality. Later the students exchange their work and have a class discussion, relating the information with the story. What is the underlying principle of this approach ?
(1) Treating knowledge in specific segments based on geography, science, language, etc.
(2) Making connections across disciplines and bringing out the inter-relatedness of knowledge
(3) Teaching language through written assignments and projects
(4) Giving importance to the practical and scholastic aspects of literary pieces
150. ‘‘Schools need to become centres that prepare children for life and ensure that all children, especially the differently abled, children from marginalised sections, and children in difficult circumstances get the maximum
benefit of this critical area of education.’’ — This observation found in the National Curriculum Framework-2005 is related to
(1) Inclusive education
(2) Constructivist learning
(3) Gender equality
(4) Critical pedagogy


Directions : Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow (Q. No. 91 to 99) by selecting the most appropriate option.
Surviving a Snakebite
1 Annually, there are a million cases of snakebite in India and of these, close to 50,000 succumb to the bites. 2 When you look around the countryside, where most bites occur, and notice people’s habits and lifestyles, these figures aren't surprising. People walk barefoot without a torch at night when they are most likely to step on a foraging venomous snake.
3 We encourage rodents by disposing waste food out in the open, or by storing food-grains in the house. Attracted by the smell of rats, snakes enter houses and when one crawls over someone asleep on the floor and the person twitches or rolls over, it may bite in defence.
4 Once bitten, we don’t rush to the hospital. Instead, we seek out the nearest conman, tie tourniquets, eat vile tasting herbal chutneys, apply poultices or spurious stones, cut/slice/suck the bitten spot, and other ghastly time-consuming deadly ‘‘remedies’’.
5 As Rom cattily remarks : ‘‘If the snake hasn’t injected enough venom, even popping an aspirin can save your life.’’ That’s the key — snakes inject venom voluntarily and we have no way of knowing if it has injected venom, and if it is a lethal dose. The only first aid is to immobilise the bitten limb like you would a fracture, and get to a hospital for anti-venom serum without wasting time.
91. Of the people who are bitten by snakes in India, the fatality rate is
(1) 5%
(2) 25%
(3) 50%
(4) 100%
92. According to the author, people living in which parts are more prone to snake bites ?
(1) Crowded cities
(2) The open
(3) Villages
(4) Forests
93. Storing foodgrains in the house is one of the causes for snake bites because
(1) foodgrains attract rats which in turn attract snakes
(2) snakes enter houses in search of stored foodgrains
(3) the smell of foodgrains brings both snakes and other animals into the house
(4) stored foodgrains create convenient hiding places for snakes within houses
94. ‘... it may bite in defence’ (para-3). This observation implies that
(1) a snake is very good at defending itself
(2) a snake may bite a human being in order to defend its prey
(3) human beings are defenceless against snakes
(4) a snake bites a human only when it is threatened
95. What, according to the author, is the reason for the high fatality rate due to snakebites in India ?
(1) Shortage of medical facilities
(2) Lack of scientific knowledge about snakebites
(3) Shortage of anti-venom serum
(4) Shortage of doctors
96. In the instance of a snakebite, what should we do immediately ?
(1) Tie torniquets
(2) Eat herbal chutneys
(3) Immobilise the bitten part and get anti-venom serum
(4) Cut-slice-suck the bitten spot
97. Pick out a word from the passage which means ‘to go around in search of food’. (Para 2)
(1) foraging
(2) countryside
(3) venomous
(4) barefoot
98. ‘‘If the snake hasn’t injected enough venom, even popping an aspirin can save your life.’’ This sentence can be rewritten without changing the meaning as
(1) When a snake has not injected enough venom, life can be saved even by swallowing an aspirin.
(2) Life can be saved even by swallowing an aspirin, even though the snake hasn’t injected enough venom.
(3) Even popping an aspirin can save your life, in spite of a snake not having injected enough venom.
(4) As long as you are popping an aspirin to save your life, the snake will not inject enough venom.
99. Pick out a word from the passage, that means ‘having the power to cause death’. (Para 5)
(1) immobilise
(2) voluntarily
(3) lethal
(4) serum
Directions : Read the poem given below and answer the questions that follow (Q. No. 100–105) by selecting the most appropriate option. 
Common Cold
 1 Go hang yourself, you old M.D.!
 You shall not sneer at me.
 Pick up your hat and stethoscope,
 Go wash your mouth with laundry soap;
 I contemplate a joy exquisite
 I’m not paying you for your visit.
 I did not call you to be told
 My malady is a common cold.
 2 By pounding brow and swollen lip;
 By fever’s hot and scaly grip;
 By those two red redundant eyes
 That weep like woeful April skies;
 By racking snuffle, snort, and sniff;
 By handkerchief after handkerchief;
 This cold you wave away as naught
 Is the damnedest cold man ever caught !
 3 Bacilli swarm within my portals
 Such as were ne’er conceived by mortals,
 But bred by scientists wise and hoary
 In some Olympic laboratory;
 Bacteria as large as mice,
 With feet of fire and heads of ice
 Who never interrupt for slumber
 Their stamping elephantine rumba.
100. What is the emotion that the poet displays in the first stanza ?
(1) Anger
(2) Joy
(3) Jealousy
(4) Sympathy
101. Why and at whom does the poet show his emotion ?
(1) At an old man because he has sneered at the poet
(2) At a doctor for an incorrect diagnosis of his medical condition
(3) At a friend who is happy at the poet’s plight
(4) At a doctor who has said the poet merely has a cold
102. The poet describes his eyes as ‘two red redundant eyes’ because
(1) he cannot see properly due to the cold
(2) they show how furious the poet is
(3) they have been affected by an eye-disease
(4) in his medical condition the poet isimagining things
103. ‘Bacteria as large as mice’ is an instance of a/an
(1) simile and a hyperbole
(2) metaphor
(3) personification
(4) alliteration
104. ‘Who never interrupt for slumber Their stamping elephantine rumba.’The meaning of these lines is that
(1) the bacteria are continuously stamping their elephant-like feet
(2) the cold-causing germs are causing much discomfort and pain to the poet without any break
(3) the bacilli are so active that they refuse to go to sleep
(4) the poet is not able to concentrate on his work due to the raging cold
105. The general tone of the poem can be described as
(1) satirical and harsh
(2) ironical and mocking
(3) whimsical and humorous
(4) sad and tragic
Directions : Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.
106. The Constructivist Approach to learning means
(1) involving the students in a variety of activities to encourage them to learn new words and structures by
accommodating them with those that they have already learnt through a process of discovery
(2) teaching rules of grammar and consolidating through rigorous practice
(3) helping learners acquire new vocabulary by studying literature intensively
(4) teaching new words and structures using a variety of audio-visual aids followed by practice through drill
107. What is the skill among the ones given below that cannot be tested in a formal written examination ?
(1) Reading for information
(2) Meaning of words and phrases
(3) Extensive reading for pleasure
(4) Analysing texts
108. Which of the following is suitable for making students responsible for their own learning ?
(1) Discouraging students from making decisions about how they learn best
(2) Using technology to chat and network
(3) Encouraging students to ask more and more questions
(4) Giving a lot of homework, project work and assignments to improve language skills of students
109. Ania, while teaching paragraph construction, should draw attention to
(1) a large variety of ideas
(2) originality of ideas
(3) topic sentence, supporting details and connectors
(4) a range of vocabulary
110. Communicative Language Teaching is concerned with
(1) teaching of vocabulary and grammar through rules of spelling and language
(2) teaching language to learners for written tests
(3) interpreting grammar rules to suit the audience
(4) enhancing receptive and productive skills such as speaking, listening, reading and writing
111. Formative Assessment is assessment
(1) of learning
(2) at learning
(3) in learning
(4) for learning
112. The term ‘Comprehensive’ in Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation means
(1) scholastic development
(2) co-scholastic development
(3) academic skills
(4) scholastic and co-scholastic development
113. A teacher designs a test to find out the cause of the poor grades of her learners through a/an
(1) Diagnostic Test
(2) Proficiency Test
(3) Achievement Test
(4) Aptitude Test
114. An inclusive class is that in which
(1) differently abled learners study with normal students
(2) students from different nationalities study together
(3) students from different religions study together
(4) both boys and girls study together
115. ‘Concrete Operational Stage’ refers to those learners who are
(1) adolescents
(2) at middle level
(3) toddlers
(4) adults
116. When learners are engaged in a pair activity, taking on roles of a doctor and a patient, the activity is called
(1) Real Activity
(2) Declamation
(3) Simulation
(4) Exchanging notes
117. Essays or long writing tasks especially on a discursive issue should
(1) help students develop their literary skills
(2) help students with grammar
(3) help them to improve their handwriting
(4) help them discuss the different points of view and justify them with illustrative points
118. A teacher, Amrita, uses various tasks such as creating charts, graphs, drawing, gathering information and presenting them through pair or group work. This differentiated instruction
(1) helps learners with multiple intelligences to perform well and learn better
(2) is a way of demonstrating her own knowledge
(3) only helps the bright learners
(4) is the best way to prepare students for an assessment
119. Using a word bank and brainstorming helps to build
(1) Vocabulary
(2) Ideas
(3) Writing skills
(4) Reading comprehension
120. Gender stereotypes and bias among learners can be discouraged by
(1) enabling all learners to cook and sew irrespective of gender
(2) using textbooks which do not perpetuate such beliefs
(3) creating an open and encouraging atmosphere in a mixed class
(4) pressuring girls to learn cooking


Directions : Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow (Q. No. 121 to 129 ) by selecting the most appropriate option. 
1 Karuna Verma is bewildered. ‘‘I don’t know how she did it,’’ she says about her mother, Renu Chopra. Karuna’s childhood memories are of her father leaving late for office so that, by then, her mother would be back from work. Of her parents working in sync to make sure the kids were well taken care of. Of her mother handling kitchen and
classroom with ease. 
2 When her own daughter was born, Karuna too wanted to do the balancing act. But it did not turn out to be as easy as it seemed. For starters, her parents’ era was different from hers. As she was living with her husband in Andheri, Mumbai, away from their families, resuming work would have meant leaving her daughter with a maid while she was away. Her daughter’s formative years would be spent with an outsider, a thought that did not appeal to Karuna. She quit her teaching job in a school. 
3 For a woman who was encouraged to be independent throughout her life, the decision to quit and stay at home was a difficult one. Ironically it was her mother who urged her to quit the job and become a full-time mother. For Karuna, being a housewife is one of the tougher jobs she has had. ‘‘I have no time for myself,’’ says Karuna. ‘‘I make sure all my personal work is done when Avni is asleep. Earlier I had a set routine. My husband and I used to wake up at 6 a.m. I would re-heat the food the maid had cooked the day before and pack it for lunch. Then we used to head off to work, and at night, we would go out. I had a lot of time to myself and for my husband then,’’ says Karuna. 
4 The routine is quite different now. Karuna has taken to cooking. She wakes up quite early and makes sure all her work is done before the baby is up. The rest of the day flies by, pandering to two-year-old Avni’s needs.  
Source : The Week, March 13, 2011 (Adapted) 
121. Karuna Verma is bewildered at
(1) the amount of work that she has to do after becoming a mother
(2) the late hours of work that her father followed
(3) the responsibility of bringing up a daughter in a big city
(4) her mother’s ability to combine her career with household work 
122. ‘... parents working in sync’ means
(1) parents pooling their resources together to take care of expenses
(2) husband and wife sinking their differences to preserve domestic harmony 
(3) father earning and mother taking care of children 
(4) parents having staggered office hours and sharing household work  
123. ‘... Karuna too wanted to do the balancing act.’
In this sentence, the term ‘balancing act’implies  
(1) sharing of responsibilities by both husband and wife 
(2) a mother’s ability to look after her child without quitting her job 
(3) managing the time efficiently so that parents can spend quality time with their children 
(4) making adjustments in order to balance work and leisure properly 
124. ‘As she was living with her husband in Andheri, Mumbai, away from their families
............ . In this sentence ‘their families’ refers to 
(1) Karuna’s mother and father’s families
(2) Karuna’s husband’s family
(3) Families of friends in Andheri, Mumbai
(4) Karuna’s parents and in-laws 
125. Karuna’s parents and her husband’s parents
probably lived  
(1) in Andheri, Mumbai
(2) in some other city
(3) in Mumbai but not in Andheri
(4) with Karuna and her husband
 126. Karuna decided to quit her job because
(1) she was not interested in her teaching job
(2) she did not want her daughter to spend her early years with a maid
(3) she wanted to have more time to herself and for her husband
(4) she wanted to pay more attention to her cooking
127. It was ironical that Karuna’s mother should 
advise her to quit her job and stay at home because 
(1) Karuna herself was keen on quitting her job 
(2) Karuna’s parents had insisted that household chores should be shared between husband and wife 
(3) Karuna’s parents had always advised her that home was much more important than career 
(4) Karuna’s mother herself had not quit her job to take care of children as she encouraged independence of women 
128. After Karuna quit her job
(1) she had a lot of time to herself and for her husband
(2) she occupied herself with cooking to spend her time usefully
(3) she sent her maid away as she felt that the maid was a bad influence on Avni
(4) she had no time for herself as Avni needed all her attention and care
129. ‘‘I have no time for myself,’’ says Karuna. This 
sentence can be written in reported speech as
(1) Karuna says that she have no time for herself
(2) Karuna said that she had no time for myself
(3) Karuna said that she had no time for herself
(4) Karuna says that she had no time for herself 
Directions : Read the passage given below and
answer the questions that follow (Q. No. 130 to 135 ) by selecting the most appropriate option. 
1 This was one of the Old Man’s pet schemes; and one about which he would brook no interference. Each child would review the events of his school week in his own words, in his own way; he was free to comment, to criticize, to agree or disagree, with any person, subject or method, as long as it was in some way associated with the school. No one and
nothing was sacred, from the Headmaster down, and the child, moreover, was safe from any form of
2 ‘‘Look at it this way,’’ Mr. Florian had said. ‘‘It is of advantage to both pupil and teacher. If a child wants to write about something which matters to him, he will take some pains to set it down as carefully and with as much detail as possible; that must in some way improve his written English in terms of spelling, construction and style. Week by week we are able, through his reviews, to follow and observe his progress in such things. As for the
teachers, we soon get a pretty good idea what the children think of us and whether or not we are getting close to them. It may sometimes be rather deflating to discover that a well-prepared lesson did not really excite Johnny Smith’s interest, but, after all, the lesson was intended to benefit Johnny Smith, not his teacher.
130. The scheme, according to the Old Man, was
useful because 
(1) it was meant to humiliate the teacher
(2) it was meant to give power to the teacher
(3) it was excellent feedback for the teacher, principal and school
(4) he was slightly eccentric 
131. ‘Pet schemes’ in line 1 refers to
(1) a pet animal 
(2) a method he has advocated
(3) a student he is fond of
(4) a formula he had discovered 
132. The ‘Old Man’ refers to
(1) a teacher of the school
(2) the headmaster called Mr. Florian
(3) a parent of the school
(4) a student of the school 
133. The advantages of the scheme were many.
Pick out the disadvantage from the list given below. 
(1) Effective feedback
(2) Enhanced writing skills
(3) Sometimes deflating to the teacher’s ego
(4) Diagnostic and remedial for the student and the teacher
134. ‘Sacred’ in the context of the Headmaster 
(1) that he was a holy man
(2) that he was the powerful head of the school
(3) that even ‘he’ was not above the ‘scheme’ he advocated for students
(4) he believed in the sacred nature of all life
135. ‘Brook’  as  a  verb means  ‘to tolerate’ in para 
1. As a noun, it means
(1) Suffer
(2) Stream
(3) Tolerance
(4) Allow 
Directions : Answer the following questions by
selecting the most appropriate option.  
136. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 has included ‘all round development of the child’ as one of the aims of education because 
(1) every child grows rapidly between six to fourteen years 
(2) proper health care is essential
(3) it nurtures the physical, mental and emotional aspects of the child
(4) it ensures that every child is a part of a workforce
137. A textbook describes a domestic scene which 
shows the father cooking in the kitchen, the mother coming home from work and their son sewing. What is the concept conveyed ? 
(1) Removing gender bias
(2) Dignity of labour
(3) Division of labour among sexes
(4) Work is worship 
138. Teachers do not give the meaning of new words to learners directly because 
(1) learners already know the meaning of the words  
(2) vocabulary will not be enriched
(3) learners do not like to be given the meaning of words 
(4) it prevents learners from discovering the meaning through puzzling out using clues 
139. Reading for comprehension can be best 
achieved through
(1) Helping learners speak words softly while reading
(2) Learners reading silently and asking comprehension questions
(3) Teaching learners to run a finger or pencil under the line being read
(4) Asking the children to read the text aloud
140. Remedial teaching as part of Formative 
Assessment means
(1) extra coaching by parents
(2) teaching for gifted students
(3) diagnosing and addressing gaps in learning
(4) teaching beyond the textbooks 
141. What type of questions promote thinking skills in children ?
(1) Personal response questions
(2) Closed-ended questions
(3) Factual questions
(4) Questions based purely on the reading text
142. Which of the following is a value associated 
with an inclusive classroom ?
(1) Sympathy
(2) Collaboration
(3) Competition
(4) Envy 
143. ‘Students need to brainstorm ideas, organise
them, draft, edit and revise their work,’ is a ‘process’ which reflects 
(1) Reading skills
(2) Writing skills
(3) Listening skills
(4) Speaking skills 
144. The aim of mechanical drills is to 
(1) improve the fluency of the learners
(2) improve the accuracy of the learners
(3) strengthen the role learning capacity of the learners 
(4) encourage creative use of language among the learners
145. Teachers help learners ‘construct’ their 
knowledge in English by
(1) giving extensive language drills in which learners practice language items mechanically 
(2) enabling them to see the relationship between their prior knowledge and the new knowledge 
(3) giving the learners a lot of assignments and projects that will lead to much practice 
(4) correcting every mistake a learner makes and giving the relevant rule of grammar as immediate feedback 
146. Learners are involved in individual activities, 
pair work, group work and whole-class work
because these 
(1) enable the already over-worked teacher to preserve her energy thereby becoming more effective 
(2) afford the learners opportunities to use the language in a focused manner for real-life interaction 
(3) provide the learners enough opportunities to relax in a language classroom 
(4) have the sole aim of introducing variety in a language classroom 
147. Which of the following is an instance of nonformal learning 
(1) Children learning through correspondence lessons 
(2) Children learning to draw from their art teacher 
(3) Children learning to cook from their parents 
(4) Children learning a new game from friends 
148. Which of the following statements is true ? 
(1) While all formative tasks are meant for improving teaching-learning, some are used for assessment too. 
(2) Formative assessment helps us to grade students into good, average and poor. 
(3) All formative tasks are meant for assessment. 
(4) Formative assessment, to be effective, must be conducted only after teaching a lesson 
149. Group project work helps in developing 
(1) competition among learners to excel in
(2) good memory in the young learners
(3) a high level of ambition to achieve
(4) collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving
150. When young learners seem to lose interest in 
a lesson, the teacher should
(1) allow them to go out and play
(2) ask them to sleep for a while
(3) tell a story or conduct an interesting activity
(4) ask them to sit quietly for some time